Pretreatment and RO System for Advanced Manufacturing Customer

Problem: A premier advanced materials manufacturing facility in New England required a constant supply of RO water for manufacturing processes. Permeate of < 10 microsiemens/cm was required. Pretreatment from a municipal water supply was available for RO feed. Peak flow requirements were ~35 GPM of RO permeate

Solution: Pure Flow designed a customized high purity water solution with the following components:

  • Backwashing duplex parallel carbon tanks for dechlorination for RO pretreatment
  • Backwashing duplex alternating water softener for hardness reduction and RO pretreatment
  • Suez (previously GE Water) E4-H Reverse Osmosis – 4” membranes, horizontally-oriented membrane housings

The complete system was pre-piped and skid mounted at Pure Flow prior to shipment to site for start up and commissioning. The system operates flawlessly and meets all customer specifications. 

Two AAMI TIR 34 Central Sterile High Purity Water Solutions

Problem: A provider of rental central sterile solutions for hospitals and surgical centers across the United States wanted to install high purity water systems meeting AAMI TIR 34 recommendations in two separate mobile units. Key water quality requirements were as follows:

-      < 10 uS conductivity

-      < 10 CFU/ml bacteria

-      < 10 EU/ml endotoxin

Solution: Pure Flow designed high purity water systems that would meet AAMI TIR 34 recommendations by upgrading pre-packaged AmeriWater HCRO series central sterile RO systems. The systems include the following components:

-Water softener

-Cartridge pre-filtration and carbon blocks

-AmeriWater RO2 Reverse Osmosis

-0.2 micron absolute endotoxin filters on the recirculating loop

- 254nm UV on the recirculating loop

- Thornton online conductivity monitoring

Units were skid-mounted and pre-piped at our facility in New Hampshire and were designed to minimize skid weight per customer specifications. 

RO Pretreatment + Lab Polisher for ASTM Type 1 Water at BioTech Facility

Problem: A New England BioTech research facility required two separate systems: one capable of providing RO water for glassware rinsing applications and another providing ASTM Type 1a water for lab applications. Peak flow rates for the lab ASTM Type 1a application were estimated to be around 0.5 L/min. Bacteria on the RO system was also a key concern. Clearly bacteria and endotoxin were of paramount importance on the ASTM Type 1a system. The facility also required online TOC monitoring for the lab water system.

Solution: Pure Flow worked with two of its key suppliers to design a system meeting requirements for both the glassware rinsing and lab water application. An AmeriWater RO2 system was selected to provide recirculating RO water with 254 nm UV from Viqua on the loop for bacteria reduction. A drop from the small loop would feed a lab polisher with online TOC monitoring, 185 and 254 nm UV, and a sterile final filter.

By working with two of the highest quality pre-engineered equipment suppliers in the industry Pure Flow was able to meet the tight turnaround time required for the project. Ongoing consumables spend for the lab polisher system is kept to a minimum since feed-water to the unit is RO quality. The end result is an extremely high-quality system with minimal ongoing service and consumable requirements.


2-Pass Reverse Osmosis Upgrade for Power Generation Facility

Problem: A New England power plant was experiencing degrading city feed water quality to their existing single-pass RO (reverse osmosis)/EDI (electrodeionization) set-up. With the EDI requiring > 40uS conductivity, RO permeate was consistently failing to deliver minimum EDI feed requirements despite 97%+ rejection from the RO membranes. The resulting problems included an increased spend on emergency mobile water systems and increased demand on staff to coordinate emergency services.

Solution: Pure Flow converted the existing RO into a 2-pass RO to enable the customer to run their EDI at a significantly higher feed conductivity to the first pass RO. Pure Flow’s solution included a new Suez E8 (previously GE Water)  RO and a break tank, chemical injection system, and Grundfos demand pump all added before the existing RO system.

The second-pass RO reduced feed conductivity to the EDI by 98%. The result is a more robust and reliable system that also produces higher quality EDI permeate. The power plant can now run with their EDI at all plant feed water conditions. 

For more information on EDI, check out our recent interview with Suez Water

For more information on Pure Flow high purity water systems, visit our engineered high purity water systems page. 

RODI/High Purity Water for Central Sterile Processing at Regional Healthcare Facility

Problem: A regional healthcare facility approached Pure Flow with a few problems:

1)    Newly installed sterilizer was experiencing “staining" due to hardness deposits which were accelerating degradation of key stainless steel components within the machines.

2)    Existing laboratory was frustrated with benchtop lab water system consumable requirements, as filters and resin cartridges need to be changed out very frequently.

The facility’s team had explored SDI (service deionization) based solutions with a large national provider of DI water. The organization was not transparent about the replacement requirements for direct feed SDI given total usage and water quality on site.


Solution: Pure Flow quickly calculated estimated annual costs for an SDI solution and proposed an RO/DI based solution as an alternative. It became clear that adding RO prior to the DI would lead to a < 2 year return on investment vs. straight SDI. When viewed in the context of supporting the lab and central sterile processing, RODI was a clear choice for the following reasons:

1)    The Pure Flow proposed central RODI provides continuously recirculating deionized water meeting minimum resistivity specifications for sterilizer OEM.

2)    Recirculating system included UV for bacteria management and sub-micron final filtration to enable a solution meeting AAMI TIR 34 guidelines

3)    Central system is easy to disinfect in order to maintain facility bacteria/endotoxin goals

4)    Water sent to lab from loop is easily polished to 18+ megohms per lab requirements (ASTM Type 1a)

Pure Flow worked in conjunction with AmeriWater to design a system comprised of the following equipment: carbon pretreatment (cartridge), reverse osmosis, exchange DI tanks, storage tank and recirculation pump, 254 nm UV, 0.2 micron absolute final filtration, online quality monitoring.

The facility chose to partner with Pure Flow to install a new RODI system with a recirculating loop. The partnership resulted in controlled high purity water feeding central sterile applications and meeting all OEM requirements for water quality. Loop drop to lab provided high purity water for lab applications dramatically improving the life of lab water system consumables.

Agricultural Water Supply Application in Massachusetts

Problem: A New England-based hydroponic agriculture operation desired consistent water quality to feed growing tanks. Tanks required feed water with a precise dosing of nutrients. Feed water bacteria reduction and mold spore elimination were key concerns as well. Supply was inconsistent as water was used to top up tanks but was also required in large batches to refill tanks after tanks are drained and cleaned. Supply of 10 GPM was required for filling growing tanks.

Solution: Pure Flow designed an RO system with the following components:

The system performed well and Pure Flow was engaged to provide a duplicate solution for an expansion project. 

Reverse Osmosis for Humidification System in Northern New England Healthcare Facility

Problem: A northern New England healthcare facility purchased humidification units require low conductivity feed water. Space for equipment was extremely limited. Softened feed water supply was available for feed.

Solution: Pure Flow designed a simple RO-based system that included the following key components:

  • Backwashing carbon pretreatment (Fleck Valve)
  • GE/Suez E4 Reverse Osmosis
  • Expansion tank and pressure switch to control RO start/stop and provide continuous pressure to humidification units

The system provides continuous supply of RO water at a specified pressure range to the humidification system. It has been operating smoothly for over a year with minimal service requirements.

Replacement of Two-Column Deionizer with RO System for New England-Based Advanced MFR

Problem: A northern New England-based advanced manufacturing firm generated low conductivity water for several key processes with an aging two column deionizer. The unit was failing to dose hydrochloric and hydroxide properly resulting in inconsistent conductivity. With more systems coming online, the company needed additional capacity for expansion. They also wanted to move away from the HCl and OH required for regeneration of the two column system.

Solution: Pure Flow designed a 20 GPM reverse osmosis-based system to allow for increased capacity beyond the legacy deionizer and the elimination of HCl and OH at the site. The final solution included the following key components:

Pure Flow also worked with the customer to eliminate the need for on-site RO clean in place (CIP) in order to avoid any chemical discharge from the equipment. Pure Flow provide off-site 4” membrane cleanings (see Pure Flow services for details) through our facility in Peterborough, NH.

Dialysis System Upgrade: FDA 510-K System in Massachusetts

Problem: A New England-based dialysis clinic procured AmeriWater equipment for several key components of their dialysis water system. The clinic wanted to upgrade to a complete AmeriWater FDA 510-K dialysis system.

Solution: Pure Flow worked with the customer to swap AmeriWater equipment for legacy equipment. Upgrades to the following components were addressed:

  • AmeriWater MROX Reverse Osmosis system for legacy RO equipment
  • New softener system from AmeriWater
  • New RO pre-filter header and system from AmeriWater
  • Replacement of existing control panel with new AmeriWater control panel

Following the equipment installation, Pure Flow worked with AmeriWater to issue a new system 510-K certification, helping the clinic achieve their water system certification goals. 

Loop Upgrade for BioTech Manufacturer in Northern New England

Problem: A premier biotech manufacturing facility was experiencing higher than normal bacteria counts as measured by CFU/ml. The problem was heighted during the summer months when loop temperatures frequently escalated. It became apparent that loop velocity was inadequate and the existing UV was under-sized for the loop flow rate.

Solution: Pure Flow sized pumps to maintain proper velocity of RO water through the 2” line. Grundfos CRNE series pumps were selected, which included integrated VFDs. An over-sized Aquafine CSL series 254nm UV was selected for continuous disinfection. New exchange DI tanks loaded with ResinTech MBD 15 LTOC were added to accommodate for the increased flow. Finally, absolute sub-micron final filtration was added for post treatment after the DI tanks. The increased velocity and UV dosage have resolved the bacteria issues and the end user is satisfied with the solution.  

RODI Water for Central Sterile Processing at Premier Boston-Based Healthcare Facility

Problem: A top-tier healthcare facility in Boston, MA was seeking a high purity water partner to provide a system to meet the needs of new and existing central sterile equipment. A 50 GPM recirculating loop was designed with the following key criteria silica < 0.5 mg/l, Resistivity > 0.5 megohms, Bacteria < 500 CFU/ml. The system had to be designed for zero-down time during service (excluding loop disinfections). Space was very limited which restricted skid-built options for systems.

Solution: Pure Flow designed a high purity water system all major equipment items arranged in duplex parallel configurations to allow for zero-downtime. Equipment items included the following:

  • Cartridge-based pretreatment (duplex for continuous operation during service)
  • Carbon tanks for chlorine removal (duplex)
  • Softeners for hardness reduction (duplex)
  • Duplex alternating RO systems - GE/ Suez E4 – (RO’s alternate filling the tank and run parallel in emergency low level scenarios)
  • Storage tank with duplex Grundfos 50 GPM distribution pumps
  • NeoTech UV with NIST traceable UV intensity meter
  • Final filter housings with Hytrex 0.2 micron absolute filters from GE/Suez
  • Thornton/Mettler Toledo Instrumentation
  • Custom PLC with touchscreen HMI and option for remote monitoring

The system was built on site and has been performing flawlessly for the end user with no downtime for service required.

Reverse Osmosis for Brewery Water Supply in Northeast

Problem: A Northeast-based rapidly growing microbrewery moved to a new facility aiming to expand production. Their well-fed water quality was inconsistent and greater control over water quality was desired. The brewery wanted to reduce TDS (total dissolved solids) and monitor quality feeding key brewing applications

Solution: Pure Flow proposed adding reverse osmosis in order to reduce TDS and provide a more consistent feed water quality. The brewery already had a softener, so softened water supply was routed through triplex backwashing carbon tanks for de-chlorination and then fed to two GE E4 RO’s operating in parallel for constant water supply.

The brewery used reverse osmosis to minimize TDS and establish key water quality metrics centered on conductivity. This resulted in consistent water quality supply to key brewing applications regardless of variability in well water conditions. 

New FDA 510-K Water System for Boston-Based University Health Network

Problem: A Boston-located university healthcare system desired an upgrade to their dialysis water system. An FDA 510-K certified water system was required, and the system was to be placed in the existing water system location once the old equipment was removed. 15 dialysis stations were required for product water supply.

Solution: Pure Flow worked with AmeriWater to select an AmeriWater FDA 510-K certified dialysis water system. The complete solution included the following components:

  • Carbon pretreatment and softener 
  • AmeriWater MROX RO system
  • Storage tank with duplex alternating Grundfos distribution pumps
  • Sub-micron endotoxin filtration
  • Controls package including dialysis room alarm functions

Ultimately the customer was pleased with the upgrade to FDA 510-K equipment. 

RO/DI System for Advanced Manufacturing Firm in the Northeast

Problem: A Northeast-based advanced manufacturing firm required 60 GPM of RO and DI water to feed several proprietary applications in a few facility. The system would be fed by central softened water supply and required two separate loops: one circulating RO water, one circulating deionized (DI) water through a high temperature stainless steel loop.

Solution: Pure Flow designed a high purity water system based on two distinct water quality requirements. A GE/Suez E8 RO fed two separate storage tanks, each with a dedicated recirculation pump and post treatment. Each loop featured Aquafine UV systems for continuous disinfection at 254 nm and sub-micron Memtrex final filtration from GE/Suez. The DI loop had additional instrumentation and equipment to help meet minimum TOC (total organic carbon) requirements including ResinTech MBD 15 LTOC resin and Thornton (M800 and 5000 TOCi) online TOC and resistivity monitoring. The system functions flawlessly with minimal downtime required for service. 

Northern New England-Based Light Pharmaceutical Project

Problem: A northern New England pharmaceutical manufacturer required a new high purity water loop to supply ASTM Type 1 A water at a flow rate of 20 GPM to multiple points of use within separate laboratories. Low conductivity city water supply was available for system supply.

Solution: Pure Flow designed a high purity water system that featured the following key components:

  • Multi-media filtration for sediment removal (fleck valve)
  • Carbon pre-treatment for de-chlorination (fleck valve)
  • GE E4 DLX Reverse Osmosis (rated to 5 GPM of permeate)
  • 500 Gallon storage tanks with Flowline ultrasonic level controls
  • Grundfos distribution pump
  • Aquafine SL series UV 
  • Service DI tanks
  • MarCor Fiber Flow sub-micron final filtration
  • Thornton online TOC and resistivity monitoring

The site now has a high purity water loop that consistently meets ASTM Type 1a quality requirements. Pure Flow provides planned maintenance (PM) to ensure that bacteria and endotoxin levels are contained to requirements. 

Reverse Osmosis for Advanced Textile Manufacturing in New England

Problem: A manufacturer of high end textiles required RO water for various processes. Feedwater source was from a nearby river and was pretreated with UF (ultrafiltration) prior to feeding the RO. RO controls and alarms had to be integrated with existing BMS (Building Management System) for continuous monitoring.

Solution: Pure Flow provided a GE/Suez E4-H Reverse Osmosis sized to 30 GPM of permeate. Pure Flow worked with the customer to provide training on CIP procedures, alarms monitoring and helped establish a system checklist. Pure Flow also worked to provide critical controls information required for BMS integration with the RO controller. The result is that the RO produces satisfactory permeate conductivity requirements for key manufacturing processes.